Cytology or Cell Biology is a study which deals with the structure, function, chemistry, reproduction and division of the cell. The word cell means a chamber or an empty room. Cell is a mass of cytoplasm containing nucleus and is surrounded by a cell membrane in animals and cell wall in plants. English Biologist ‘Robert Hooke‘ is honoured as the ‘Father of Cell Biology.’
Robert Hooke discovered the cell in dead tissue or in cork. When he observed a thin layer or slice of cork under his primitive microscope, he noticed honey comb like compartments which were dead and he gave the term cell to such compartments.
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch Scientist who designed the first light or compound microscope. He was the first person to discover living cells like bacteria, Red Blood Cells (RBC’s), Protozoans, Amoeba, Paramecium and human sperm cells.
He stated that tissues are made up of cells. To prove this he separated the cells by boiling the tissue in acid.
Puekinje discovered fluid like material in the cell known as cytoplasm. Cytoplasm and Nucleus are together known as Protoplasm. According to Huxley protoplasm is the physical basis of our life.