Describing Motion

Rest

A body is said to be in the state of Rest if it doesn’t change it’s position with respect to time and surrounding.
For example: Bottle kept on a table, A table lying in a corner, Passengers sitting in a bus, train, aeroplane etc.

Motion

A body is said to be in the state of Motion if it change it’s position continuously with respect to time and surroundings.
For example: A fan moving, Flying a kite, Moving of a car, Boy on a swing etc.

Scalar Quantity

The quantity that deals with the magnitude only (numeric).
For Example: Distance, Speed, Work etc

Vector Quantity

The quantity that deals with the magnitude as well as direction.
For Example: Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration etc

Distance

It is defined as the actual length of the path covered by the body.

  • The S.I. unit of distance is metre (m)
  • It is a scalar quantity
  • It can never be zero or negative

Displacement

It is defined as the shortest distance between the initial point and the final point.

  • The S.I. unit of distance is metre (m)
  • It is a vector quantity
  • It can be zero or negative

Uniform Motion

A body is said to be in uniform motion if it covers equal distances in equal intervals of time.

Non-Uniform Motion

A body is said to be in non-uniform motion if it covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time.

Speed

Speed is defined as distance traveled by the object in unit time i.e. Speed = Distance/Time.

  • It is denoted as V i.e. V = S/T.
  • It is a Scalar Quantity
  • The S.I. unit of speed is m/s.

Average Speed

The average speed of an object is obtained by dividing the total distance traveled by the total time taken i.e. Average Speed = Total Distance/Total Time Taken.

Velocity

Velocity is the speed of an object moving in a definite direction. The velocity of an object can be uniform or variable.

  • Velocity = Speed + Direction
  • V = Displacement/Time
  • The S.I. unit of velocity is m/s.
  • It is a Vector Quantity

Average Velocity

Average Velocity is given by the arthematic mean of initial velocity and final velocity for a given period of time i.e. Average Velocity = Initial

  • Velocity + Final Velocity/2
  • Mathematically : Average Velocity = U+V/2
  • Average Velocity = Total Displacement / Total Time Taken

Types of Acceleration

  • Positive Acceleration
    When final velocity is more than initial velocity in that case acceleration would be positive.
  • Negative Acceleration
    When initial velocity is more than final velocity in that case acceleration would be negative.
  • Zero Acceleration
    When a body moves with a constant velocity i.r. V=U in that case acceleration would be zero.

Accelerated Motion

  • Uniformly Accelerated Motion
    An object travels in a straight line and its velocity increases or decreases by equal amount in equal amount in equal intervals of time, then the acceleration is said to be in uniform.
    For Example: The motion of a freely body falling.
  • Non-Uniform Accelerated Motion
    An object can travel with non-uniform acceleration if it’s velocity changes at a non-uniform rate.
    For Example: If a car travels along a straight road increases it’s speed by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time, then the car is said to be moving in non-uniform accelerated motion.
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